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HomePublicationJournalsKaoguyuwenwu (Archaeology and Cultural Relics)
Archaeology and Cultural Relics 2011-5
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2012-11-18

Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology
A Brief Report of the Southern Gate Tower Site at the Yang Mausoleum in Western Han Dynasty   ...............  ( 3 )
Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Yulin Municipal Institute of Archaeology and Conservation, Yulin Municipal Team for Archaeological Coring and Investigation & Administrative Office for Tongwancheng Site in Jingbian County
Archaeological Discoveries at the Tongwancheng Site in Recent Years    ...................................................  ( 14 )
Xinjiang Autonomous Regional Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Center for Culture Heritage and Archaeological Research, Northwest University & Administrative Bureau of Cultural Relics, kazakh Autonomous Region, Yili County
A Brief Report of Excavation at the ' Jiale kesi kaente' Cemetery in Nileke County, Xinjiang........................ ( 20 )
Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology
A Brief Report of the Excavation of Dugu Bin Tomb ........................................................................  ( 30 )
Ren Xueli
An Analysis on FangGui   .........................................................................................................  ( 38 )
Duan Yu
On the Yudong Bronze Culture of the Yangtze River Valley: With Discussions on the Relationship between Two
Bronze Cultures in Yudong and Chuandong....................................................................................  ( 42 )
Wang Chunbin
A Preliminary Study on Kilns dating to the Warring States and the Transitional Period Between the Qin and Han
Dynasties   ...........................................................................................................................  ( 50 )
Suo Dehao&Liu Yumao
Mask with Foreigner' s Facial Image in the Han Dynasty: a study based on a mask from M23 at Lijialiangzi in Jintang,
Chengdu .......................................................................................................................  (60)
Hu Changchun
Unearthed Archaeological Evidence of ' Tiandi shizhe ' and ' Chijie shizhe ' in the Eastern Han Dynasty.........  ( 66 )
Yang Wuzhan
Several New Understandings of the Nature of the Southern Gate Tower Site at the Yang Mausoleum in Western Han
Dynasty ..............................................................................................................................  ( 75 )
Liu Daiyun&Li Jugang
Research on the Epitaph fromDugu Bin Tomb in the Northern Zhou Dynasty    .......................................  ( 80 )
Mao Yangguang
Textual Research on the Newly Discovered An Bei' s Epitaph of the Sui Dynasty in Luoyang   .....................  ( 84 )
Deng Fei
An Explanation on 'Zonggong' in the Shang Dynasty  .....................................................................  (89)
Yuan Jinping
Explanation of in Qi Bronze Inscriptions ....................................................................................... ( 93 )
Tian Chengfang
Date, State Identity and Other Issues Related to Liaozizhuang Ge halberd     .............................................  ( 97 )
Yun Yali, Li Xiaocen, Li Qinghua & Zhang Zhao
A Preliminary Study on technique of Bronzes from the Hejiashan site in Midu county, Yunnan
....................................................................................................................................... (100)
Song Yanbo
An Analysis on the Sacrificial Animals from Several Zhou Tombs in Shandong Region    .............................. (105)


KEY WORDS: Yang Mausoleum in the Western Han Dynasty Site of the southern gate tower 'Sanchu' gate tower ABSTRACT: Yang Mausoleum belonged to the Jing Emperor and his queen with Wang surname, who was buried at the same mausoleum but in separate tomb. The site is composed of a passage way and two symmetrical architectural complexes on its east and west sides. Since the layout of Mausoleum looks like protruding three times from cemetery wall to the central passage way, this article refers this pattern to 'sanchu ' gate tower. The excavation of the southern gate tower site may play a significant role in studying the system of gate and gate tower and architectural history in the Western Han, or even ancient China.

KEY WORDS:Tongwanchang   External Wall   Moat
ABSTRACT: This article tries to summarize the investigation, coring, excavation and mapping which have been processed since 2006 at the Tongwanchang site. The survey and identification of an external wall and the discovery of moat provide information which was unknown before. The excavation of a barbican at the west gateway and residential area in the Yuan Dynasty significantly substantiate and complement the basic data of Tongwanchang. This project also combines the mapping by Total station, GPS, and drone remote sensing to provide solid data for later preservation.

KEY WORDS :Xingjiang    ' Jiale kesi kaente' cemetery    Excavation
ABSTRACT: The ' Jiale kesi kaente' cemetery is located at the first and second terraces of the southern bank of Kash-kar river, an tribute of upper Ili river. There are single or double pebble circles below the tumuli in most cases. The numbers of cases that tumuli was piled-up on the surface but without pebbles circles below are very limited. In general, burials are shaft-pit or catacomb in east-west direction. Burial occupants, most of them were buried by one time, are extended, and their heads pointed to the west. Secondary burials in this cemetery are uncommon. Funeral goods are contemporary daily goods and personal decorations. The period of these burials were between the fifth century BC and Han Dynasty.

KEY WORDS:Xianyang   Northern Zhou   Burials   Dugu Bin
ABSTRACT: TheDugu Bin tomb is located at the Longzao village in Di Zhang town of Weicheng area, Xianyang. This tomb is preserved very well and entirely and yields abundant funeral goods. Since the adjacent area had been a cemetery privileged only by Northern Zhou high elites, the discovery of this burial can play a key role in studying the cemetery of Dugu clan in comparison to Dugu Xin and Dugu Luo tombs.

KEY WORDS: Fanggui (round shaped gui) Fangyi  (round shaped yi) Xu Square shaped vessel ABSTRACT: Fanggui is a rare type of bronze gui vessel and only less than 10 pieces have been identified and recorded hitherto. All of them are collections and were cast by high techniques with exquisite decorations. Thus, it is possible that only the leaders of Fangguo (external groups) or marquis of other states were privileged to use these bronzes. This article plans to discuss the reasons and factors that limited the utilization of these bronzes, the relationship between Fanggui , fangyi and xu , and its role in the development of bronze technology.

KEY WORDS: Eastern Chongqing   Mainstream of Yangtze River   Bronze culture
ABSTRACT: In the Shang and Zhou Dynasties,ealy bronze culture began to take shape in the area along the mainstream of Yangtze River in the east Chongqing During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the bronze culture in this area arrived at its golden era with the southward movement, entrance and promotion of the civilization of Ba. The abundance of bronze wares excavated from the Graveyard of Lijiaba site in Yunyang of Chongqing is the typical example. These bronze wares reveal that this settlement has a military importance. Bronzes of Lijiaba site, especially the bronze weapons reveal that the rise of bronze culture in this area in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty is along with frequent and violent wars. Bronzes of Ba in the period of the Warring States have been found in many sites in the areas along the mainstream in the east of Chongqing and Jialing River. The scope of the distribution of bronze culture in Ba during the period of the Warring States coincides with the time and route that Ba proceeded westwards along Yangtze River from The three gorges into Sichuan and Chongqing.

KEY WORDS: Warring States    Transitional period between the Qin and Han Dynasties    Kilns
ABSTRACT: The author tries to classify the structure of kilns dating to the Warring States and the transitional period between the Qin and Han Dynasties. Based on this classification, the author attempts to generalize and analyze the relative dates of various types of kilns, the chronological changes of kilns, artifacts fired at kilns, and fuel used during this period.

KEY WORDS: Mask with foreigner' s facial image    'Hutou '     'Nuo '
ABSTRACT: According to a systematic study of different editions of Jinchu shuishiji (荆楚岁时记), the author proposes that the mask depicting foreigner' s facial image from M23 at Lijialianzhi, Jintang, be the physical evidence of 'hutou mentioned in the text. 'Hutou ' might have been worn by 'nuo ' and used during funeral ceremony. Its function might be similar to ' fangxiangshi ' (方相氏) popularized in the Central Plain region which was often buried in tombs for tomb guarding after ceremonies. When Buddhism had been spread to Sichuan region, it was impacted by the local witchcraft and assimilated to 'nuo ' ceremony originated from Xiyu (the Western region). Thus, indigenous Budhism had become and developed to a ceremonial practice, and the mask with foreigner' s facial image had been used as one of 'nuo ' paraphernalia.

KEY WORDS: Epitaph of tomb guardian 'Tiandi shizhe Pictorial Stones ' Chijie shizhe ' Early Taoism
ABSTRACT: Tiandi shizhe' was the commonest sender in the epitaph of tomb guardians during the Eastern Han Dynasty. In addition, the image of envoys with holding posture had been identified on the iconographies from pictorial stones and tomb murals. These two lines of evidence are relevant to a certain extent and may reflect the activities of initial Taoism among commoners during the Eastern Han period. This article attempts to analyze the identity of 'tiandi shizhe ' and its relationship with 'tiandi ' (天帝), ' dvriamingphen ' (地下冥神), and the spirits of dead mentioned in texts. Similarly, this article tries to illustrate the relationship between the iconography of 'tiandi shizhe ', heaven, and the spirits of dead. In the end, the author will also compare the iconographic and textual records related to 'tiandi shizhe '.

KEY WORDS: Yang Mausoleum in the Western Han Dynasty    Site of the southern gate tower    'Sanchu ' gate tower
ABSTRACT: By juxtaposing texts, archaeological evidence and the characteristic of the site, the author proposes that the architectural style of the southern gate tower site at the Yang Mausoleum in the Western Han Dynasty represents the highest-status gate tower —'sanchu ' gate tower. This type of gate tower at the Yang Mausoleum might have profoundly and significantly impacted on the development of gate tower in ancient China.

KEY WORDS: Northern Zhou   Chang'an   Texts on epitaph     Textual study
ABSTRACT: In 2007, Shaanxi Provincial Institute Archaeology excavated the Dugu Bin tomb, dating to the 'Jiande (建德) first year of the Northern Zhou Dynasty (572), at Dizhang of Weicheng area, Xianyang . The unearthed epitaph shows that the occupant was also called Gao Bin, the father of a famous ministry named Gao Jiong in the Sui Dynasty, mentioned in historical texts. The abundant information recorded on epitaph may play a significant role in understanding the Northern Zhou and Sui history. In addition, the information also presents critical clues for a systematic and holistic study of this burial.

KEY WORDS:Luoyang   An Bei's epitaph    Sogdian
ABSTRACT: The newly discovered An Bei's Epitaph of the Sui dynasty is the only epitaph for a Chinese Sogdian ever found in the Luoyang area. It recorded how An Bei' s ancestors came to Luoyang during the Northern Wei dynasty, and how An Bei and his father served the Northern Qi court. Although An Bei was good at business, he followed the Confucian moral principles of filial piety, yet at the same time he believed in and practiced Zoroastrianism. This indicates that the Chinese Sog-dians were under multicultural influences on their way of thinking and conduct. The epitaph also demonstrates a shared desire among Chinese Sogdians who were eager to enter the Chinese society and become part of it in the period of the Northern dynasties.

KEY WORDS: Oracle Bones Inscription Shangshu Unearthed documents Transmitted documents Textual study
ABSTRACT: In both Shang oracle bones and ' Book of Document' (Shangshu), 'zonggong ' (宗工) has been mentioned in similar contexts and background. As these two kinds of references are relatively contemporary, the meaning of these two terms might be identical. Yet, the meaning of 'zonggong ' in oracle bones is still unclear. Zonggong in the Kong Anguo' s forged Old text of ' Book of Documents' was explained as zunguan (尊官). We propose that the previous explanation is problematic. It is much better to view zonggong as a kind of servants participating in the sacrificial and ceremonial activities in the temples of capital. They served in various kinds of ceremonies and were knowledgeable in ceremonies and relative skills. The group of servants also owned certain personal freedoms and social status.

KEY WORDS;Spring and Autumn period    Qi bronze inscriptions    'Zao'     'Zhuang'
ABSTRACT; This paper discusses two graphs on Qi bronzes which date to the Spring-and-Autumn period. The first graph discussed here is the character 'zao' on Guozuo (国差)yan vessel. This character, which used to be viewed as 'he' (何), should be explained as 'zao', or the action of casting. The second graph ??, which is inscribed on Qitaizai guifu (齐太宰归父) pan vessel, is the abbreviation of the guwen style (older version) of 'zhuang' and represents the name Guifu.

KEY WORDS: Liaozizhuang' ge     Liao State with'ji ' (姬) surname   Date State    identity
ABSTRACT: The date and state identity of ' liaozizhuang' ge halberd had been argued and debated quite substantially in the past. According to its morphological features, the author proposes that this piece should be dated to the second phase of Middle Springs and Autumns period. By comparing with other textural evidence, this article suggests that this ge be produced by the Liao state with 'ji ' surname and be irrelevant to the Liao state with 'ji ' (己) and 'shu ' (舒) surname. The identification of the date and state identity of this weapon can substantiate the understandings of the Liao state in terms of its history and culture.

KEY WORDS:Hejiashan    copper    manufacturing technology    high-antimony alloy
ABSTRACT: Hejiashan, a metal smelting and casting site that belongs to the late Spring and Autumn to middle Warring States period (770BC - 475BC), is located in Midu County, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. 45 bronze artifacts and 23 figulines and stone molds were excavated from this site. In this research, 8 metallic artifacts including weapons, tools and decorations unearthed from this site were sampled to examine the microstructure and compositions by optical metallography and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometry, which show that they were copper, Cu-Sn, Cu-Sn-As, and Cu-Pb-As-Sb alloys made by casting forging, and cold-working after casting In addition, the styles of these objects are similar to the artifacts unearthed from Erhai and Lake Dian region even Southeast Asia. Thus, this scientific research will make it possible to understand the diverse bronze cultures in this area, and reveal the technical relation between west and east Yunnan.

KEY WORDS: Shandong Region   Zhou Dynasty    Burials    Sacrificial animals
ABSTRACT: Sacrificial animals like dogs, pigs, cattle, sheep and deer were identified from numbers of Zhou tombs in Shandong region. Dogs were buried entirely in these burials, while the elements of other taxa were dominated by limb bones. The age profiles of dogs and pigs show that they were following certain patterns. In comparison to historical texts, the assemblage of sacrificial animals illustrates certain local characteristics.

 
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